17 October

The second part of the McGreal list comes from the predecessor to Great Literature of the Western World, published four years prior and entitled Great Thinkers of the Western World. As the introduction of the Literature book states, the first of the duo "emphasizes ideas and their place in philosophical and religious perspectives; the present volume concerns itself with the expression of human experience through literature--through the use of images, recitals of significant events or moments, and reflection on what has happened in life" [original emphasis]. A few works are discussed in both books, but the essays in each discuss different aspects of those works.


Confucius (Kongfuzi/K'ung Fu-tzu)
Major Works: Many classics were attributed to the editorship of Confucius, yet most scholars agree that the only work that can represent the ideas of Confucius is the Analects (Lunyu/Lun-yü), a collection of notes and quotations written down by his disciples and edited after his death.

Laozi (Lao Tzu)

Major Work: Daode jing (Tao Te Ching) (Classic of the Way and Its Power)

Mozi (Mo Tzu)

Major Work: Mozi (Mo Tzu). This work was not composed by Mozi, but rather was the product of the Mohist tradition (c. 390-221 B C). It contains numerous sayings of Mozi, along with chapters on the later tradition's teaching on defensive warfare (chapters 51-79) and discourses on logical method (chapters 40-45).

Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu)

Major Work: Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu)

Mencius (Mengzi/Meng Tzu)

Major Work: Mengzi (Meng Tzu) (The Book of Mencius)

Gongsun Long (Kung-sun Lung)

Major Work: Gongsun Longzi (Kung-sun Lung Tzu)

Xunzi (Hsün Tzu)

Major Work: Xunzi (Hsün Tzu), in thirty-two chapters, edited by Liu Xiang (Liu Hsiang) (77 B C)

The Spring and Autumn Annals of Master Lu (Lüshi Chunqiu/Lü-shih Ch'un-ch'iu)

Presumably compiled by Lu Buwei (Lü Pu-wei)
Third century B C

Han Fei
Major Work: Hazi Fei Zi (Han Fei Tzu) (Date of compilation unknown.)

The Great Learning (Da Xue/Ta Hsüeh)

Attributed to Zengzi (Tseng Tzu) or Zi Si (Tzu Ssu)
Between third and second centuries B C

The Doctrine of the Mean (Zhong Yong/Chung Yung)

Attributed to Zi Si (Tzu Ssu), but author unknown
Between third and second centuries B C

Yi Jing (I Ching) (Book of Changes)

Unknown. According to tradition, the book was composed in several layers over many centuries. The discovery of the eight component "trigram" (three-line) symbols is attributed to the first of the legendary Five Emperors, Fu Xi (Fu Hsi) (ruled 2852-2737 B C). The creation of the sixty-four "hexagram" (six-line) symbols and the composition of the hexagram statements is ascribed to Ji Chang (Chi Ch'ang), posthumously known as King Wen, founder of the Zhou (Chou) dynasty (c. 1027 B C). Ji Dan (Chi Tan), younger son of Ji Chang, better known as Zhou Gong (Chou Kung), or the Duke of Zhou, is credited with the formulation of the individual line statements (six per hexagram). Finally, the "Ten Wings," a body of commentaries attached to the above texts, were supposedly written by Confucius (Kongfuzi/K'ung Fu-tzu) (551-479 B C)
Historical events mentioned in the lines of the hexagrams pertain to the period just before and after the founding of the Zhou dynasty, that is, the end of the second and beginning of the first millennium B C. However, the first recorded reference to the book is much later. A passage dated 672 B C, from the work of history known as the Zuozhuan (Tso-chuan), quotes from a divination manual called the Zhouyi (Chou i), "The Changes of Zhou (Chou)." This text, with its appended commentaries, was finally canonized as the Yi jing (the Book of Change) in 136 B C. The commentaries alone date from the third and fourth centuries B C. Therefore the composition of the Yi jing as we now know it spans a period of approximately eight centuries.

Dong Zhongshu (Tung Chung-shu)

Major Work: Luxuriant Dew of the Spring and Autumn Annals (Chunqiu Fanlu/Ch'un-ch'iu fan-lu)

Wang Chong (Wang Ch'ung)

Major Works: Luheng (Lun-heng) (Discursive Equilibrium), in eighty-five chapters (A D 82-83); chapter 85, an autobiography, mentions three shorter works, none of which survives

Liezi (Lieh Tzu)

Attributed to Liezi (Lieh Tzu), but probably not written by him
c. A D 300, contains material from earlier sources

Guo Xiang (Kuo Hsiang)

Major Work: Zhuangzi zhu (Chuang Tzu Chu) (Commentary on the Zhuangzi/Chuang Tzu)

Jizang (Chi-Tsang)

Major Works: Zhongguanlun shu (Chung-kuan lun-shu) (Commentary on the Mādhyamika shastra); Erdi zhang (Erh ti chang) (Essay on the Two Levels of Discourse); Bailun shu (Pai lun shu) (Commentary on the Shata Shastra); Shi er men lun shu (Shih erh men lun shu) (Commentary on the Twelve Gate Treatise); Sanlun xuanyi (San-lun hsüan-i) (Profound Meaning of the Three Treatises); Erdi yi (Erh ti i) (Meaning of the Two Levels of Discourse); Dasheng xuanlun (Ta sheng hsüan-lun) (Treatise on the Mystery of the Mahāyāna)

Xuanzang (Hsüan-tsang)

Major Works: Xi yu li (Hsi yü chi) (Record of Western Lands) (646); Chengweishi lun (Ch'eng-wei-shih lun) (Establishment of the Consciousness-Only System) (659)


Major Work: Liuzu Tanjing (Liu-tsu t'an-ching) (The Platform Scripture of the Sixth Patriarch)

Fazang (Fa-tsang)

Major Works: An incredibly prolific writer, Fazang produced more than sixty original works, commentaries on a wide variety of Buddhist texts, and meditation manuals, and participated in at least some of the Buddhist translation projects of his time. Much of his work centers on the exegesis of the Huayan jing (Hua-yen ching) (Flower Garland Scripture), which is sometimes referred to in Sanskrit as the Avatamsaka Sutra. A complete list of his works would be impractical, but a few of the major works are: Huayan wujiao zhang (Hua-yen wu-chiao chang) (Essay on the Five Teachings of the Huayan); Huayan yihai baimen (Hua-yen i-hai po-men) (The Hundred Gates to the Unfathomable Meaning of the Huayan); Huayan fa putixin zhang (Hua-yen fa p'u-t'i-hsin chang) (Essay on the Arousal of the Bodhi Mind in the Huayan); Qixinlun yiji (Ch'i-hsin-lun i-chi) (Commentary on the Mahāyāna Awakening of the Faith)

Zhou Dunyi (Chou Tun-i)

Major Works: Taijitu shuo (T'ai-chi-t'u shuo) (An Explanation of the Diagram of the Great Ultimate); Tongshu (T'ung-shu) (Penetrating the Book of Changes)

Zhang Zai (Chang Tsai)

Major Works: Zhengmeng (Cheng-meng) (Correcting Youthful Ignorance. Also translated as: Correct Discipline of Beginners); Ximing (Hsi-ming) (The Western Inscription. Part of chapter 17 of the Zhengmeng); Jingxue liku (Ching-hsüeh li-k'u) (Assembled Principles of Classical Learning); Yishou (I-shou) (Commentaries on the Book of Changes)

Cheng Hao (Ch'eng Hao) and Cheng Yi (Ch'eng I)

Major Works: Er-Cheng quanshu (Erh-Ch'eng Ch'uan-shu) (The Complete Works of the Two Chengs). This collection, which has not been translated into English except for brief selections, includes miscellaneous surviving works of the two brothers (commentaries, poems and letters), including the Yi chuan (I ch'uan) (Commentary of the Yi jing/I Ching) by Cheng Yi and the Cuiyan (Ts'ui-yen) (Pure Words), which records conversations of the two brothers.

Zhu Xi (Chu Hsi)

Major Works: Recorded Sayings, Commentary on the "Four Books", Commentary on the Book of Changes, Commentary on the Book of Odes

Wang Yangming (Wang Yang-ming)

Major Works: Chuanxi lu (Ch'uan hsi lu) (Instructions for Practical Living), Part I composed in 1514, Part II in 1521-1527; Daxue wen (Ta-hsüeh wen) (Questions on the Great Learning), (1527)

Dai Zhen (Tai Chen)
Major Works: Yuanshan (Yüan-shan) (Inquiry into Goodness) (1754-66); (Mengzi ziyi shuzheng) (Meng Tzu tzu-i shu-cheng) (An Evidential Study of the Meaning of Terms in the Mencius) (1772-77).

Kang Youwei (K'ang Yu-wei)

Major Works: Xinxue Weijing Kao (Hsin Hsüeh Wei Ching K'ao) (Study of the Classics Forged During the Hsin Period) (1891); Kungzi Gaizhi Kao (K'ung Tzu Kai-chih K'ao) (Study of Confucius as Reformer) (1896; published in 1913); Zhongyong Zhu (Chung-yung Chu) (Commentary on the Doctrine of the Mean) (1900); Lunyu Zhu (Lun-yü Chu) (Commentary on the Analects) (1902); Liyun Zhu (Li-yün Chu) (Commentary on the Evolution of Rites) (1913); Da Tong Shu (Ta-t'ung Shu) (Book of the Great Unity) (1935)

Tan Sitong (T'an Ssu-t'ung)

Major Work: Ren xue (Jen-hsüeh) (An Exposition of Benevolence, or A Study of Humanity) (1896-97)

Sun Yat-sen (Sun Yixian/Sun I-hsien) 

Major Works: Sun Wen Xue Shuo (Sun Wen Hsüeh Shuo) (Memoirs of a Chinese Revolutionary: A Program of National Reconstruction for China) (1918); Sanmin Zhuyi (San Min Chu I) (The Three Principles of the People) (1924); Jian Guo Dagang (Chien Kuo Ta-kang) (Fundamentals of National Reconstruction) (1924)

Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung)

Major Works: 'On Practice' (1937), 'On Contradiction' (1937), 'On New Democracy' (1940), 'On Literature and Art' (1942), 'On the Correct Handling of the Contradictions Among the People' (1957)

Fung Yu-lan

Major Works: History of Chinese Philosophy (1930, 1934); New Rationalism (Xin lixue/Hsin Li-hsüeh) (1939); China's Road to Freedom (Xin shilun/Hsin shih-lun) (1939); A New Treatise on the Way of Life (Xin shixun/Hsin shih hsün) (1940); A New Treatise on the Nature of Man (Xin yuanren/Hsin yüan-jen) (1943); The Spirit of Chinese Philosophy (Xin yuanduo/Hsin yüan-tao) (1944); A New Treatise on the Methodology of Metaphysics (Xin zhiyan/Hsin chih-yen) (1946)


Unknown. The work of many Indian philosophers and teachers.
c. 600-c. 400 B C
Philosophical and religious reflections expressed in prose and poetry. The prose Upanishads are: Brihad-Āranyaka, Chāndogya, Taittirīya, Aitareya, Kaushītaki, Kena, Prashna, Maitri, and Māndūkya. The poetic Upanishads are: Katha, Shvetāshvatara, Īsha, and Mundaka.

Buddha (Siddhārtha Gautama)

Major Works: The Buddha's sayings were recollected and written down many years after his death. The sūtras (dialogues), which form a part of the Pali Tripitaka, are generally conceded to be the closest approximation to what the Buddha actually taught.


Major Work: Brahmasūtras (Aphorisms on The Brahman)

Bhagavad Gītā

Attributed to Vyāsa
Between fifth and first centuries B C


Major Work: Yoga Sūtras


Major Works: Mūla-madhyamaka-kārikā (Verses on the Fundamental Middle Way), Vigrāha-vyāvartani (Refutation of Objections)


Major Works: Abhidharma-kosha, Twenty Verses, Thirty Verses (Trimshikā), One Hundred Dharmas Treatise


Major Work: Sānkhya Kārikās (Verses on the Sānkhya)

Kumārila Bhatta

Major Works: Shlokavārtika (Exposition on the Verses) [Commentary on Shabara's Commentary on Jaimini's Mīmāmsa Sūtras, Books 1, Chapter 1]; Tantravārtika (Exposition on the Sacred Science) [Commentary on Shabara's Commentary on Jaimini's Mīmāmsa Sūtras, Book 1, Chapters 2-4; Books 2 and 3]; Tuptika (Full Exposition) [Commentary on Shabara's Commentary on Jaimini's Mīmāmsa Sūtras, Books 4-9]

Jayarāsi Bhatta

Major Work: Tattvopaplavasimha (The Lion That Devours All Categories or The Upsetting of All Principles) (seventh century A D)


Major Work: Kārikā (Exposition) on Māndūkya Upanishad


Major Works: Anekāntajayapatākā (The Victory Banner of Relativism), Ashtakaprakarana (The Eightfold Explanation), Dhūrtākhyāna (The Rogue's Stories), Samarāiccakahā (The Story of Samarāicca), Sāstravārtāsamuccaya (The Array of Explanatory Teachings), Yogabindu (The Seeds of Yoga), Yogadrishtisamuccaya (The Array of Views on Yoga)


Major Works: Aitareyopanishadbhāshya (Commentary on the Aitareya Upanishad), Ātmabodha (Self-knowledge), Bhagavadagītābhāshya (Commentary on the Bhagavad Gītā), Brahmasūtrabhāshya (Commentary on the Brahma Sūtra), Brihadāranyakopanishadbhāshya (Commentary on the Brihadāranyaka Upanishad), Chāndogyopanishadbhāshya (Commentary on the Chāndogya Upanishad), Īshopanishadbhāshya (Commentary on the Īsha Upanishad), Kathopanishadbhāshya (Commentary on the Katha Upanishad), Kenopanishadbhāshya (Commentary on the Kena Upanishad), Upadeshasāhashrī (The Thousand Teachings)

Vācaspati Mishra

Major Works: Bhāmatī ("The Lustrous:" [Commentary of Shankara's Brahmasūtrabhāshya]), Brahmatattvasamīksha (Examination of the Brahman as Truth), Nyāyakanikā (Brief Outline of the Nyāya School), Tattvabindu (Quintessence of the Truth)


Major Works: Brihadāranyakopanishadbhāshya Vārtikā (Explanation of the Commentary on the Brihadāranyaka Upanishad), Naishkarmyasiddhi (Establishment of Non-action), Sambandha Vārtikā (Explanation of Relations), Taittirīyopanishadbhāshya Vārtikā (Explanation of the Commentary on the Taittirīya Upanishad)


Major Works: Shrībhāshya (Commentary on the Brahma Sūtra), Gītābhāshya (Commentary on the Gītā), Vedāntasāra (The Essence of Vedanta), Vedārthasamgraha (Compendium of the Vedic Topics)


Majof Works: Madhva-bhāshya (Comentary on Brahma-sūtra), Gītābhāshya (Commentary on the Gītā), Mahābhārata-tātparya-nirnaya (Determination of the Meaning of the Māhābhārata), Anubhāshya (Short Commentary [on the Brahma Sūtra]), Anuvyākhyāna (Supplemental Explanation [of the Brahma Sūtra])


Major Works: Nyāyasudha (Nectar of Logic) [Commentary on Madhva's Anuvyākhyāna Commentary on the Brahma Sūtras]; Tattvaprakāshikā (Light on the Truth) [Commentary on Madhva's Comentary on the Brahma Sūtras]; Vādāvali (Lineage of Controversies)


Major Works: Asa Di Var [Hymns], Japji [Poetry] 

Jīva Gosvāmin

Major Works: Bhāgavatasandarbha (The Collection of the Bhāgavata Purāna) [This work as six parts: 'Tattvasandarbha' ('Collection on Reality'), Bhāgavatsandarbha' ('Collection on the Lord'), 'Paramātmasandarbha' ('Collection on the Great Soul'), 'Krishnasandarbha' ('Collection on Krishna'), 'Bhaktisandarbha' ('Collection on Devotion'), and the 'Prītisamdarbha' ('Collection on Love')]; Sarvasamvādini (The Harmonization of All); Kramasandarbha (Commentary on the Bhāgavata Purāna)


Major Works: Vijnānāmritabhāshya (The Nectar of Knowledge Commentary) [Commentary on the Brahma Sūtras of Bādarāyana], Īshvaragītābhāshya (Commentary on the Bhagavad Gītā), Sānkhyasāra (Quintessence of Sānkhya), Sānkhysūtrabhāshya (Commentary on the Sānkhyasūtras [of Kapila]), Yogasārasamgraha (Compendium on the Quintessence of Yoga), Yogabhāshyavārttika (Explanation of the Commentary [of Vyāsa] on the Yoga Sūtras)

Madhusūdana Sarasvatī

Major Works: Advaitasiddhi, Siddhāntatattvabindu, Vedāntakalpalatikā

Dharmarāja Adhvarin

Major Work: Vedānta Paribhāshā

Rabindranath Tagore

Major Works: Gitānjali (1912), Sādhnā (1913), Personality (1917), Gorā (1924), The Religion of Man (1931)

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

Major Works: The Story of My Experiments With Truth (1927), Satyāgraha in South Africa (1938), Selections From Gandhi (edited by N K Bose) (1948)


Major Works: The Life Divine (1949), Letters on Yoga (1971), The Supramental Manifestation (1972)

K C Bhattacharyya

Major Works: Studies in Vendāntism (1907), The Subject as Freedom (1930), 'The Concept of Philosophy', 'The Absolute and Its Alternative Forms', 'The Concept of Value' (1939)

Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan

Major Works: Indian Philosophy (1923, 1927), The Hindu Way of Life (1927), An Idealist View of Life (1932), Eastern Religions and Western Thought (1939), The Brahma Sūtras (1959)

Jawaharlal Nehru

Major Works: Soviet Russia (1928), Statements, Speeches and Writings (1929), Letters from a Father to His Daughter (1930), Glimpses of World History (1934), An Autobiography (1936), The Discovery of India (1946)

Shōtoku Taishi
Major Works: Jūshichijō kempō (Seventeen-Article Constitution) (604), Sangyō gisho (Commentaries on Three Sūtras), Shōmangyō gisho (Commentary on the Sūtra of Queen Shrīmālā) (c. 609-611), Yukimakyō gisho (Commentary on the Vimalakirtī Sūtra) (c. 612-613), Hokkekyō gisho (Commentary on the Lotus Sūtra) (c. 614-615)


Major Works: Indications of the Goals of the Three Teachings (797), The Difference Between Exoteric and Esoteric Buddhism (814), Attaining Enlightenment in This Every Existence (817), The Meanings of Sound, Word, and Reality (817), The Precious Key to the Secret Treasury (830)

Genshin (Eshin Sōzu)

Major Works: Ōjōyōshū (The Essentials for Birth in Amida's Paradise) (985), Kanjin ryaku yōshū (Essentials of Self-Insight) (997), Hongakusan shaku (Essay on [Ryōgen's] Hymn to Original Enlightenment), Shinyo kan (Seeing Thusness), The Yokawa hōgo (Yokawa Tract)


Major Works: Senchakushū (Selected Passages on the Original View) (1198), One Page Testament (1212)

Jien (Jichin)

Major Works: Gukanshō (Miscellany of Ignorant Views) (1219), Jichin kashō [or oshō] jikaawase (The Personal Poetry Contest of the Venerable Jichin) (c. 1199), Shūgyokushū (Collection of Gleaned Jewels) (compiled in 1346; expanded in 1594)
Note: Kankyo no tomo (Companion for a Solitary Retreat) (1222), a setsuwa collection by the monk Keisei was until recently attributed to Jien.


Major Works: Smashing the Heretical Chariot (1212), Illustrated Account of the Origins of Kegon (early thirteenth century), Entering the Kegon Gate of Liberation Through the Practice of Zen Illumination (1220), The Meaning of the Divine Influences Received Through the Mantra of Radiance (1228), Dream Diary (1230)


Major Works: The True Teaching, Practice and Realization of the Pure Land Way (popularly known as Kyōgyōshinshō; draft written in 1224; completed c. 1247)


Major Works: Shōbōgenzō (Treasury of the True Dharma-Eye) (1231-53), Shōbōgenzō Zuimonki (Miscellaneous Talks) (1233), Eithei Kōroku (Recorded Sayings at Eiheiji Temple) (1243-53), Fukanzazengi (Universal Recommendation for Zazen Practice) (1227)


Major Works: Risshō ankoku ron (Treatise on the Establishment of the Orthodox Teaching and the Peace of the Nation) (1260), Hokke daimoku shō (Treatise on the Recitation of the Title of the Lotus Sūtra) (1264), Kaimoku shō (Opening of the Eyes) (1272)


Major Works: 'Sacred Poem on the Unity of the Ten and One' (1271), 'Sacred Poem on the Six Hundred Thousand People' (1274), 'Hymn on the Specific Vow [of Amida]' (1287)

Kitabatake Chikafusa

Major Work: Jinnō Shōtōki (Chronicle of the Direct Descents of Gods and Sovereigns) 

Fujiwara Seika

Major Works: Bunshō tattoku kōryō, Chiyo motogusa (1591), Kana Seiri (Plainly Written Truths and Principles), Seika mondō (Seika's Dialogues), Suntetsu roku (A Record of Pithy Sayings) (1606), Daigaku yōryaku (Epitome of the Great Learning) (1619)

Suzuki Shōsan

Major Works: Banmin tokuyō (Right Action for All) (1661), Ninin bikuni (Two Nuns) (1664), Roankyō (Donkey Saddle Bridge) (1648), Mōanjō (A Safe Staff for the Blind) (1619)

Hayashi Razan

Major Works: Hai Yaso (The Anti-Jesuit) (1606), Santokushō (Notes on the Three Virtues) (c. 1629), Honchō jinja kō (Study of Our Shinto Shrines), Honchō tsugan (Comprehensive Mirror of Our Nation), Shintō denju (Shintō Initiation), Shunkanshō (Spring Mirror Notes) (1629)

Nakae Tōju

Major Works: Okina mondō (Dialogues with an Old Man), Jikei Ausetsu (The Diagram of Holding Fast to Reverence, Explained), Genjin (Inquiry into Man)

Yamazaki Ansai

Major Works: Hekii (Refutation of Heresies) (1647), Bunkai hitsuroku (Reading Notes), Hakurokudō gakukishūchū (Collected Commentaries on Zhu Xi's [Chu Hsi's] Regulations for the White Deer Grotto School) (1650), Yamato shōgaku (Japanese Elementary Learning) (1658)

Yamaga Sokō

Major Works: Bukyō shogaku (Little Learning of the Warrior's Creed) (1656), Seikyō yōroku (Essential Teachings of the Sages) (1665), Gorui (Classified Discourses) (1665), Chūchō jijitsu (True Facts of the Central Kingdom) (1669), Haisho zampitsu (Autobiography in Exile) (1675)

Itō Jinsai

Major Works: Dōjimon (Boys' Questions) (1707), Go-Mō jigi (The Meaning of Terms in the Analects and Mencius) (1683)

Kaibara Ekken

Major Works: Yamato zokkun (Precepts for Daily Life in Japan) (1708), Yamato honzō (Plants of Japan) (1709), Yōjōkun (Precepts for Health Care) (1713), Taigiroku (Record of Grave Doubts) (1714)

Ogyū Sorai

Major Works: Bendō (Distinguishing the Way) (1717), Seidan (Discourses on Government) (1725?)

Motoori Norinaga

Major Works: Ashiwake obune (A Small Boat Punting Through the Reed Brake) (1756), Shibun yōryō (The Essence of the Tale of Genji) (1763), Isnokami Sasamegoto (My Personal View of Poetry) (1763), Kuzubana (Arrowroot Blossoms) (1780), Uiyamabumi (The First Step on the Mountain of Learning) (1799), Naobi no mitama (The Rectifying Spirit) (1771), Tamakushige (The Jeweled Comb-Box) (1786), Kojikiden (A Commentary on the Kojiki) (1798), Genji monogatari tama no ogushi (The Small Jeweled Comb: A Study of the Tale of Genji) (1796)

Hirata Atsutane

Major Works: Kōdo taii (Summary of the Ancient Way) (1811), Koshichō (1811), Shitsunoiwaya (1811), Tama no mihashira (Pillar of the Soul) (1812), Tamadasuki (1829), Koshiden (Commentaries on Ancient History) (1825), Shutsujō shogo (A Laughing Discourse on the Everyday World) (1811), Hongyō gaihen (Supplementary Compilation of Shinto) (1806)

Nishida Kitarō

Major Works: A Study of Good (1911), Intuition and Reflection in Self-Awakening (1917), From the Acting to the Seeing (1927), The Self-Conscious Determination of Nothingness (1932), Logic and Life (1936), The Logic of Basho and the Religious World View (1945)

Tanabe Hajime

Major Works: Collected Essays on the Logic of Species (1932-41), Philosophy as Metanoetics (1946), The Dialectics of the Logic of Species (1946), A Dialectical Demonstration of the Truth of Christianity (1948)

Uehara Senroku

Major Works: Shishin-shō (The Heart of History: Selections) (1940), Gakumon he no Gendaiteki Danso (Contemporary Reflections on Scholarship) (1946-55), Heiwa no Sōzō: Jinrui to Kokumin no Rekishiteki Kadai (Building Peace: Historical Tasks of the Human Race and of the Japanese People) (1950), Sekaishi-Ninshiki no Shin-Kadai (New Tasks Toward a Global Historical Consciousness) (1963-68), Shisha Seisha: Nichiren Ninshiki no Hassō to Shiten (The Dead and the Living: The Notion and Standpoint of Nichiren Consciousness) (1970), Kureta no Tsubo: Sekaishi-zō Keisei no tame no Shidoku (The Cretan Jar: Readings Toward the Formation of Global Historical Consciousness) (1975)

Nishitani Keiji

Major Works: Kongenteiki Shutaisei no Tetsugaku (The Philosophy of Fundamental Subjectivity) (1940), Nihirizumu (The Self-Overcoming of Nihilism) (1946; English translation, 1990), Shūkyō to wa Nanika (What Is Religion? Translated as Religion and Nothingness) (1961; English translation, 1982), Nishida Kitarō (1985; English translation, 1991); Zen no Tachiba (The Standpoint of Zen) (1986)


Major Works: Commentary and Supplementary Notes on the Awakening of Faith in Mahāyāna (c. 622-676), Treatise on Ten Approaches to the Reconciliation of Doctrinal Controversy (date unknown), Arouse Your Mind and Practice! (date unknown), Exposition of the Adamantine Absorption Scipture (c. 685)


Major Works: Encouragement to Practice: The Compact of the Concentration and Wisdom Community (1190), Secrets on Cultivating the Mind (1203-05), Admonitions to Beginning Students (1205), Straight Talks on the True Mind (c. 1205), Abridgement of the Commentary of the Flower Garden Sūtra (1207), Excerpts from the Dharma Collection and Separate Circulation Record with Personal Notes (1209)

Yi T'oegye

Major Works: Chyonmyongdo (Revision of Chong Chi-Un's Old Diagram of the Mandate of Heaven) (1553), Chujasojolyo (Essentials of Master Chu's Letters) (1556), Jasongnok (Self-Reflections) (1558), T'oegye Kobong Wangbokso (The T'oegye-Kobong Correspondence) (1559-67), Songhakshipdo (Ten Diagrams of Confucianist Learning) (1567)


Major Works: The Mirror of the Three Teachings, The Mirror of the Meditation School (1564)

Yi Yulgok (Yi I)

Major Works: Donghomundap (Conversations on Politics Between Host and Guest) (1569), Hyangyak (On the Community Pact) (1571), Dap Songhowon (The Yulgok-Ugye Correspondence) (1572), Songhakjibjo (Essentials of Confucianist Learning) (1575), Kyokmongyokyol (A Primer of Neo-Confucianism) (1577), Sohakjipchu (Collected Annotations on the Small Learning) (1579), Kyongyonilki (A Diary of Royal Lectures) (1581)

Han Yongun

Major Works: Treatise on the Reform of Korean Buddhism (1913), 'A Discourse on the Independence of Korea' (1919), The Silence of Love (1926)

World of Islam:
Rābi'a al-Adawiyya
Major Works: Sayings compiled by later biographers, especially Fariduddin 'Attar (d. c. 1230) in his Memorial of the Friends of God


Major Works: Fī al-Falsafat al-Ūlā (On First Philosophy), Risāla fī Kammiyyat Kutub Arisṭūālīs wa mā yuḥtāj ilaih fī Taḥṣīl al-Falsafa (Treatise on the Number of Aristotle's Books and What Is Needed to Attain Philosophy), Risāla fī al-Ḥīla li-Daf' al-Aḥzan (Treatise on the Device for Driving Away Sorrows), Risāla fī Alfāẓ Suqrāṭ (Treatise on the Utterances of Socrates)

Abū Bakr al-Rāzī

Major Works: Book of the Philosophic Life, Book of Spiritual Medicine


Major Works: al-Madīna al-fāḍilah (The Opinion of the People of the Virtuous City), Short Commentary on Aristotle's Prior Analytics, About the Scope of Aristotle's Metaphysics, On the Intellect, The Harmony Between the Views of the Divine Plato and Aristotle, The Attainment of Happiness, Aphorisms of the Statesman

Avicenna (Ibn Sīnā)

Major Works: Kitāb al-Shifā (The Book of Healing), Kitāb al-Najāt (The Book of Deliverance), Risālah fi'l-'ishq (Treatise on Love), Ḥayy in Yaqzān (The Son of the Awake), Risālah al-a'īr (Treatise on Birds), Fountains of Wisdom, al-Ishārāt wa'l tanbīhāt (The Book of Directives and Remarks), Manṭiq al-mashriqiyīn (Logic of the Orientals)


Major Works: Risālah (The Treatise on Sufism), Lat'aif al-Ishārāt (Subtlest Indications)


Major Works: Intentions of the Philosophers, The Deliverer from Error, Incoherence of the Philosophers, The Just Mean in Belief, Revival of Religious Sciences, The Elixir of Happiness


Major Works: Kitab al-Milal wa'l-Nihal (The Book of Religions and Philosophical Communities) (1127); Nihayat al-'Iqdam (The Culmination of Demonstration in Scholastic Theology)

Averroes (Ibn Rushd)

Major Works: The Decisive Treatise, The Incoherence of the Incoherence, Commentary on Plato's Republic, Middle Commentary on Aristotle's Rhetoric


Major Works: Philosophy of Illuminations (Ḥikmat al-ishrāq), The Book of Intimations, The Book of Oppositions, The Book of Conversations, The Flashes of Light, The Knowledge of God, Treatise on Illumination

Ibn 'Arabī

Major Works: Interpreter of Desires (1214-15), The Ringsettings of Wisdom (begun in 1229), Meccan Openings (1201-38)


Major Works: Maktūbāt (Letters), Mabda'-ō-Ma'ād (Origin and Return), Ithbāt al-Nubuwwa (The Affirmation of Prophecy)

Mullā Ṣadrā (
adr al-Dīn Shīrāzī)
Major Works: al-Asfār al-arba'ah (The Four Journeys of the Soul), al-Mabda' wa'l-ma'ād (The Book of Origin and Return), al-Shawāhid al-rubūbiyyah (Divine Witnessess), al-Hikmat al-'arshiyyah (Descending from the Divine Throne), Commenary on Avicenna's Shifa', Commentary on Suhrawardī's Hikmat al-Ishrā

Shāh Walĩ Allāh

Major Works: Ḥujjat Allāh al-Bāligha (The Conclusive Argument From God), al-Budūr al-Bāzigha (Full Moons Rising)

Muhammad Iqbal

Major Works: Asrar-i Khudi (Secrets of the Self) (1915), Rumuz-i Bikhudi (Mysteries of Selflessness) (1918), Payam-i Mashriq (Message of the East) (1923), Zubur-i 'Ajam (Persian Hymns) (1927), Six Lectures on the Lectures on the Reconstruction of Islamic Thought (1930), Javid Namah (Book of Eternity) (1932), Bal-i Jibril (Gabriel's Swing) (1936), Armaghan-i Hijaz (Gift of Hijaz) (1938)

Sayyid Muḥammad Ḥusain Tabāṭabā'ī

Major Works: Al-Mizan fi Tafsir al-Qur'an (Balance in Qur'anic Commentary) (n.d.), Qu'ran dar Islam (Qur'an in Islam), Rawabit-i Ijtima'i dar Islam (Social Relations in Islam) (n.d.), Usul Falsafah wa Rawish-i Realism (Foundations of Philosophy and Method of Realism) (1953-85), Tafsir a-Mizan (Qur'anic Commentary) (1965), Shi'ah dar Islam (Shi'ism in Islam) (1969), Shi'ah: Majmu'ah-i Muzakrat ba Professor Henry Corbin (Shi'ism: Collection of Discussions with Professor Henry Corbin) (1976), Usul-i Falsafah-i Realism (Foundations of Realist Philosophy) (1976), Falsah-i Iqtisad-i Islam (Philosophy of Islam's Economics) (1982), Nahayah al-Hikmah (Ultimates of Knowledge) (1984)