13 September

Classics of the Western World, cont.--works from the Eighteenth Century onward:

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz [1646-1716]
237) New Essays on Human Understanding
238) The Monadology

Correspondence (selections)

Daniel Defoe [1660-1731]
239) The Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

240) A Journal of the Plague Year
241) The Fortunes and Misfortunes of the Famous Moll Flanders
242) The Life, Adventures and Piracies of the Famous Captain Singleton

Jonathan Swift [1667-1745]
243) Gulliver's Travels

Journal to Stella, Letters I-III, VIII-X, XVI-XX, LXV

Poems: 244) On the Death of Dr. Swift, 'Phyllis[; or, The Progress of Love]', 'Strephon and Chloe', 'Furniture of a Woman's Mind', Grub Street Elegy ['A Grub-Street Elegy On the Supposed Death of Partridge, the Almanac-Maker'], 'The Problem[, That My Lord Berkeley Stinks When He Is in Love]'

Tale of a Tub: 'Digression on Critics'; 'Digression on Madness'
245) A Modest Proposal
An Essay on Modern Education [originally published as the ninth issue of the Intelligencer; subsequently included in Swift and Pope's Miscellanies]
On the Education of Ladies ['Of the Education of Ladies', originally published in his collected works of 1765]

George Berkeley [1685-1753]
246) A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge

247) Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous
248) Commonplace Book [written 1705-08; originally published in The Works of George Berkeley, 1781]

Montesquieu [1689-1755]
Persian Letters, Introduction, Letters 1-14, 23-26, 28-34, 36-41, 44-61, 68-73, 112-118, 122, 131, 136, 141
The Spirit of the Laws, Preface, Author's Note, bks. I-IV, bks. VIII-IX, bk. X, chs. 6-8, bk. XI, ch. 6, bk. XIV, bk. XV, ch. 5, bk. XIX, chs. 1-10, bk. XXV, bk. XXX, chs. 23-25

Samuel Richardson [1689-1781]
249) Clarissa Harlowe

250) Pamela

Voltaire [1694-1778]
251) Candide
252) Philosophical Dictionary

253) Zadig
254) The Age of Louis XIV

Henry Fielding [1707-1754]
255) The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling

256) The History of the Adventures of Joseph Andrews and His Friend, Mr. Abraham Andrews
257) The Life of Jonathan Wild
258) The Journal of a Voyage to Lisbon
259) The Tragedy of Tragedies; or, The Life and Death of Tom Thumb the Great

Samuel Johnson [1709-1784]
260) The Lives of the Poets (especially the lives on Milton, Dryden, Pope, Swift and Savage)
Johnson's Preface to his edition of Shakespeare

261) Rasselas 

David Hume [1711-1776]
262) An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
263) The brief autobiography (My Own Life)

264) An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals
265) Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion

Jean-Jacques Rousseau [1712-1778]
266) The Social Contract
267) Discourse on Inequality
268) Confessions
Emile, or An Education, bks. I, II, and IV
269) Discourse on the Arts and Sciences

Denis Diderot [1713-1784]
270) Conversation Between D'Alembert and Diderot, D'Alembert's Dream, and the Conclusion of the Conversation
271) Rameau's Nephew

Tobias George Smollett [1721-1771]
272) The Adventures of Roderick Random

273) The Expedition of Humphrey Clinker
274) The Adventures of Peregrine Pickle

Adam Smith [1723-1790]
275) An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Especially: book I; book II, Introduction, chs. 1, 2, 5; book III; book IV, Introduction, chs. 7, 8, 9; book V, ch. 2.

276) The Theory of Moral Sentiments

Sir Joshua Reynolds [1723-1794]
277) Fifteen Discourses Delivered in the Royal Academy

Immanuel Kant [1724-1804]
278) Critique of Pure Reason

279) Critique of Practical Reason and Other Works on the Theory of Ethics; also 280) Lectures on Ethics, translated by Louis Infield [1930]
281) Critique of Judgment
282) Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics
283) Religion Within the Limits of Reason Alone

Gotthold Ephraim Lessing [1729-1781]
284) Laocoon, An Essay Upon the Limits of Painting and Poetry

285) Nathan the Wise
286) Minna von Barnhelm
287) The Education of the Human Race

Edmund Burke [1729-1797]
288) Reflections on the Revolution in France
289) A Philosophical Inquiry Into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful

Edward Gibbon [1737-1794]
The History of the Decline and Fall of the Empire, J B Bury, ed., 7 vols.: chs. 1, 2, 16, 17, 20, 23, 24, 31, 34, 40, 50, 58, 68, 71; or selections from Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, by Rawlinson and Dunlop

290) The Autobiography of Edward Gibbon

James Boswell [1740-1795]
291) The Life of Samuel Johnson, LL.D.

292) A Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides With Samuel Johnson, LL.D.

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe [1749-1832]
293) Faust (especially Part I)
294-295) Wilhelm Meister
296) Poetry and Truth (Dichtung und Wahrheit)
297) Conversations With Eckermann

William Blake [1757-1827]
298) Songs of Innocence and Experience
299) The Marriage of Heaven and Hell
300) The Everlasting Gospel
301) There Is No Natural Religion
302) All Religions Are One
303) The Book of Thel

The Annotations to Reynolds' Discourse
Readings in the Letters are also recommended

Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller [1759-1805]
304) Wallenstein's Camp, The Piccolomini, The Death of Wallenstein, 305) Wilhelm Tell

306) Don Carlos, 307) Mary Stuart, 308) The Maid of Orleans, 309) The Robbers, 310) Love and Intrigue
Essays, Aesthetical and Philosophical [incl. 311) Über die ästhetische Erziehung des Menschen in einer Reihe von Briefen [On the Aesthetic Education of Man in a Series of Letters] [1794]]
Selections From the Correspondence Between Schiller and Goethe, edited by J G Robertson [1898] 

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel [1770-1831]
312) he Philosophy of History (especially Hegel's Introduction and Part IV)

313) The Phenomenology of Mind (especially Hegel's Preface)
314) The Philosophy of Right (especially Hegel's Preface)
315) The Philosophy of Fine Art
316) The Science of Logic

William Wordsworth [1770-1850]
317) The Prelude, or Growth of a Poet's Mind; an Autobiographical Poem

Lyrical Ballads
Advertisement of the Lyrical Ballads, 1798; Preface to the Lyrical Ballads, 1800; Appendix on Poetic Diction, 1802; Preface of 1815

318) The Excursion

Samuel Taylor Coleridge [1772-1834]
319) Biographia Literaria

320) On the Constitution of the Church and State According to the Idea of Each
Essays and Lectures on Shakespeare and Some Other Old Poets and Dramatists

Stendhal (Henri Beyle) [1783-1842]
321) The Red and the Black

322) The Life of Henri Brulard
323) The Charterhouse of Parma
324) Racine et Shakespeare

George Gordon, Lord Byron [1788-1824]
325) Don Juan

326) Childe Harold's Pilgrimage
327) Manfred
328) Cain
329) Beppo
'The Vision of Judgment' [originally published in the Liberal, 15 Oct. 1822]
330) The Giaour
331) The Bride of Abydos
332) The Corsair

Arthur Schopenhauer [1798-1860]
333) The World as Will and Idea. Especially volume I

Essays: Especially 'The Sufferings of the World', 'The Vanity of Existence', 'Suicide', 'Education', 'Women', and 'Noise'

Giacomo Leopardi [1798-1837]
Canti (Songs, Poems)

Essays, Dialogues, and Thoughts [translated by James Thomson and edited by Bertram Dobell, 1905]

Alexander Pushkin [1799-1837]
334) Eugene Onegin

['Skazka o Zolotom Petuške'] 'The Tale of the Golden Cockerel' [originally published in Biblioteka Dlya Chteniya, 1835]
335) Boris Godunov
336) Mozart and Salieri
337) The Captain's Daughter

Honore de Balzac [1799-1850]
338) Cousin Betty
339) The Wild Ass's Skin
340) Greatness and Fall of César Birotteau
341) The Girl With the Golden Eyes
342) Lost Illusions

John Henry (Cardinal) Newman [1801-1890]
343) Apologia pro Vita Sua, Being a History of His Religious Opinions
344) The Idea of a University, Defined and Illustrated

345) An Essay in Aid of a Grammar of Assent
Essays Critical and Historical
346) An Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine
347) The Via Media of the Anglican Church

Victor Hugo [1802-1885]
Novels: 348) Les Misérables

349) Toilers of the Sea
350) Notre-Dame de Paris (The Hunchback of Notre-Dame)
Poems: Read selections from: Les Feuilles d'Automne, Les Chants du Crépuscule, and especially Les Châtiments
Plays: 351) Hernani, 352) Ruy Blas
Criticism: 353) William Shakespeare

Hector Berlioz [1803-1869]
354) Memoirs (Chapters 52, 53, 55-56, 59-61, 64-66 of the Memoirs may be omitted by those not especially interested in the condition of music in the nineteenth century.)

355) Evenings in the Orchestra
[A Critical Study of ]Beethoven's Nine Symphonies [essays originally published in A Travers Chants, Etudes Musicales, Adorations, Boutades et Critiques]
356) Treatise on Instrumentation and Orchestration

Ralph Waldo Emerson [1803-1882]
357) The American Scholar
Essays: 'History', 'Self-Reliance', 'Nature'

Representative Men: 'Montaigne'
Poems: 'To J W', 'The Rhodora', 'Monadnoc', 'Fable', 'Ode' (to W H Channing), 'Give All to Love', 'Threnody', 'Concord Hymn', 'Brahma'
A reading of selections from the Journals is recommended. The Heart of Emerson's Journals [1926]; Journals of Ralph Waldo Emerson [1909-14]

Nathaniel Hawthorne [1804-1864]
358) The Scarlet Letter

Twice-Told Tales
359) The Marble Faun
360) The House of the Seven Gables
361) The Blithedale Romance
Readings in the Notebooks and Journals are also recommended: Hawthorne's American Notebooks [1932]; The Heart of Hawthorne's Journals [1929]

John Stuart Mill [1806-1873]
362) Autobiography

363) On Liberty, 364) Utilitarianism, 365) Nature

Principles of Political Economy: book II, ch. 16; book IV, chs. 6 and 7; book V, ch. 11
'Thornton on Labor and Its Chains', in Dissertations and Discussions, vol. V
A System of Logic, book VI
'Writings of Alfred de Vigny', in Dissertations and Discussions, vol. I

Nikolai Vasilevich Gogol [1809-1852]
366) Dead Souls

Charles Darwin [1809-1882]
367) On the Origin of Species

Life and Letters of Charles Darwin. Vol. I: ch. II (autobiographical chapter); ch. V (1831); ch. IX (1842-1854); ch. XII (May 1856-June 1858). Vol. II: chs. I-III (Oct. 1859-1862)
More Letters. Vol. II, ch. VIII (1860-1862)
368) Journal of the Voyage of the H M S Beagle

William Makepeace Thackeray [1811-1863]
369) Vanity Fair

370) The History of Henry Esmond, Esq., and its sequel, 371) The Virginians
372) The History of Pendennis
373) The Newcomes
374) The Book of Snobs

375) The Four Georges: Sketches of Manners, Morals, Court, and Town Life
'An Essay on the Genius of George Cruikshank' [originally published in the Westminster Review, Jun. 1840]

Charles Dickens [1812-1870]
376) Our Mutual Friend
377) Pickwick Papers

378) David Copperfield
379) Great Expectations
380) Bleak House
381) A Tale of Two Cities
382) Oliver Twist
383) Nicholas Nickleby

Henry David Thoreau [1817-1862]
384) Walden
Miscellanies: 'The Service', 'Paradise (to be) Regained', 'Herald of Freedom', 'Wendell Phillips', 'Thomas Carlyle and His Works', 'Civil Disobedience', 'Slavery in Massachusetts', 'John Brown' (three essays), 'Life Without Principle'

385) Cape Cod
Familiar Letters of Thoreau [1894]

Karl Marx [1818-1883]
386) The Communist Manifesto (with Friedrich Engels)
387) The Civil War in France
The Critique of Political Economy, Introduction
Capital, vol I, ch. I, sec. 1-3, chs. IV-VII, ch. XIII; vol. II, ch. XVII, chs. XXIV and XXV, appendices

Ivan Sergieevich Turgenev [1818-1883]
388) Fathers and Sons (sometimes called Fathers and Children)

389) Virgin Soil
390) A Sportsman's Sketches

Herman Melville [1819-1891]
391) Moby Dick

392) Journal Up the Straits
393) Clarel

Walt Whitman [1819-1892]
394) Leaves of Grass

395) Specimen Days in America

Gustave Flaubert [1821-1880]
396) Madame Bovary

397) Sentimental Education
398) Salammbô
399) The Temptation of Saint Anthony
400) Three Tales: 'A Simple Heart', 'Herodias', 'The Legend of Saint Julian the Hospitaller'

Feodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky [1821-1881]
401) The Brothers Karamazov

402) The Idiot
403) Crime and Punishment
404) The Possessed

Matthew Arnold [1822-1888]
Literary Criticism: Essays in Criticism: First Series: 'The Function of Criticism at the Present Time'; 'The Literary Influence of Academies'; 'Heinrich Heine'

Discourses in America: 'Literature and Science'
Essays in Criticism: Second Series: 'The Study of Poetry'; 'Milton'; 'Thomas Gray'; 'John Keats'; 'Wordsworth'; 'Byron'; 'Shelley'
405) On Translating Homer
Mixed Essays: 'A French Critic on Milton'; 'A French Critic on Goethe'; 'George Sand'
Politics: 406) Culture and Anarchy
Mixed Essays: 'Democracy'; 'Equality'
Religion: 407) Literature and Dogma
Poems: The student of Arnold will wish to read most of the poetry, but the following poems are especially important: Sonnet: 'One Lesson, Nature, Let Me Learn of Thee'; 'To a Republican Friend' (two sonnets); 'The Strayed Reveller'; 'Shakespeare'; 'To a Gipsy Child by the Sea-Shore'; 'The Forsaken Merman'; 'Empedocles on Etna'; 'The Scholar Gipsy'; 'Stanzas From the Grande Chartreuse'; 'Thyrsis'; 'Dover Beach'; 'Rugby Chapel'

Henrik Ibsen [1828-1906]
408) A Doll's House, 409) Ghosts, 410) Hedda Gabler, 411) John Gabriel Borkman, 412) Peer Gynt

413) Pillars of Society, 414) The Wild Duck, 415) The Master Builder, 416) Rosmersholm, 417) An Enemy of the People, 418) The Lady From the Sea, 419) When We Dead Awaken

George Meredith [1828-1909]
420) The Ordeal of Richard Feverel
421) The Egoist

422) Beauchamp's Career
423) Diana of the Crossways
424) The Tragic Comedians
425) Evan Harrington

Poetry: 426) Modern Love
427) A Reading of Earth
428) Odes in Contribution to the Song of French History
429) Poems and Lyrics of the Joy of Earth especially 'The Woods of Westermain', 'Melampus', 'Love in the Valley'
'[On ]The Idea of Comedy and [of ]the Uses of the Comic Spirit', edited by Lane Cooper [1918] [originally published in the New Quarterly Magazine, Apr. 1877]

Samuel Butler [1835-1902]
430) Life and Habit
'The Humour of Homer' and 'Quis Desiderio...?' in The Humour of Homer and Other Essays

431) The Way of All Flesh
432) Evolution Old and New

Mark Twain (Samuel Langhorne Clemens) [1835-1910]
433) The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

434) The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
435) Life on the Mississippi
436) The Innocents Abroad
437) A Tramp Abroad
'The Jumping Frog of Calaveras County'

Henry George [1839-1897]
Progress and Poverty, bks. I-III, bk. IV, chs. I and II, bks. V-VII, bk. VIII, ch. IV, bk. X

438) The Land Question
439) The Science of Political Economy

Thomas Hardy [1840-1928]
440) Under the Greenwood Tree
441) The Woodlanders

442) The Return of the Native
443) Late Lyrics and Earlier
444) The Dynasts

William James [1842-1910]
The Principles of Psychology, chs. 1, 4, 7, 9, 11, 21, 26, 28
445) Some Problems of Philosophy

446) The Varieties of Religious Experience
Selected Papers on Philosophy
Letters, edited by Henry James

Henry James [1843-1910]
447) The Portrait of a Lady
448) The Lady Casamassima

449) The Ambassadors
450) The Other House
451) The Turn of the Screw, in The Two Magics
'The Pupil', in What Maisie Knew

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche [1844-1900]
'The Use and Abuse of History' and 'Schopenhauer as Educator', in Thoughts Out of Season
452) Beyond Good and Evil
453) Ecce Homo

454) The Genealogy of Morals
The Will to Power, Part II

Sigmund Freud [1856-1939]
455) A General Introduction to Psychoanalysis
456) Beyond the Pleasure Principle

457) The Interpretation of Dreams
458) The Psychopathology of Everyday Life
459) The Problem of Anxiety
460) Civilization and Its Discontents
461) New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis

George Bernard Shaw [1856- ]
462) You Can Never Tell, 463) Man and Superman, 464) Heartbreak House

465) The Sanity of Art
466) London Music in 1888-1889
467) The Future of Political Science in America
'On Going to Church' [originally published in the Savoy, Jan. 1896]

Henri Bergson [1859-1941]
468) An Introduction to Metaphysics
469) Creative Evolution

470) The Two Sources of Morality and Religion

Anton Pavlovich Chekhov [1860-1904]
Plays: 471) The Cherry Orchard, 472) The Sea Gull

473) Uncle Vanya, 474) Three Sisters
Stories: It is difficult to choose among the many (more than a hundred) tales by Chekhov, but some of the most interesting are: 'The Darling', 'The Privy Councillor', 'Vanka', 'The Wife', 'The Ravine', 'The Horse Stealers', and 'Love'

Marcel Proust [1871-1922]
475) Swann's Way (Du Côté de Chez Swann)

Within a Budding Grove (A l'Ombre des Jeunes Filles en Fleurs)
The Guermantes Way (Le Côté de Guermantes)
Cities of the Plain (Sodome et Gomorrhe)
The Captive (La Prisonnière)
The Sweet Cheat Gone (Albertine Disparue)
The Past Recaptured (Le Temps Retrouvé)

James Joyce [1882-1941]
476) Ulysses

477) A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man
478) Dubliners
479) Finnegans Wake
480) Exiles: A Play in Three Acts
Collected Poems [1937]